A complete guide on normal blood sugar level


A simple blood sugar test can tell your doctor if you have diabetes. The two most common tests are fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). FPG is the preferred method because it is simpler, faster, and less expensive than OGTT.

Your doctor may order an A1C test to check your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. The A1C test gives a good overall picture of how you have been managing your diabetes.

A hemoglobin A1c test is a blood test that reflects your average blood sugar level in the past two to three months. This measurement, called HbA1c, gives a good overall picture of how you have been managing your diabetes. It’s often used along with the fasting plasma glucose test in people diagnosed with pre-diabetes or diabetes to monitor control and help predict future complications.

In addition, HbA1c testing may be used to monitor the following:

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Your response to treatment

Your risk of developing diabetic complications

Whether you are at high risk of having a low blood sugar episode ( hypoglycemia )

What Is the Fasting Plasma Glucose Test?

The fasting plasma glucose test is often called an FPG. This quick, simple test is usually done first thing in the morning before eating or drinking anything other than water.

You should not smoke for at least 30 minutes before the test. If you take insulin, be sure to wait two hours after your last dose before having this test done.

After the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test is done, your blood sample will be sent to a lab and tested for:

Glucose

Hemoglobin A1c (A1C)

Fructosamine

Your doctor will talk to you about your results. If your blood sugar is high, the doctor may order a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test or an HbA1c test. This will tell how well your diabetes treatment plan is working.

What Is an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test?

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measures your body’s response to sugar (glucose).

If you take insulin, the OGTT may be done without fasting first. If you don’t take insulin, it’s usually necessary to fast for 8 to 12 hours before the test. That means no food or drink except water for at least eight hours before the test.

You may be asked to keep a diary of what you eat and drink during this time so that your doctor can see if there are any patterns between what you eat and your BG levels.

The OGTT also tests your blood sugar after you drink a sugary liquid. This tells how well your body uses insulin to get glucose into your cells and lower your blood sugar level.

You may also have the OGTT with an FPG test on the same day. For this test, you will need to fast for at least eight hours before having both tests.

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