Diabetes Mellitus: Know How It Differs From Diabetes Insipidus


Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus seem similar or in a family but, other than their first name “diabetes” they share nothing in common. They have different causes and treatments.  The complications that are caused by the two are also different. Let us understand what they are individually.

What Is It?

Diabetes Mellitus: Know How It Differs From Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes mellitus is nothing but simple diabetes in which the body attains a condition in which it could not make insulin hormone. It is a hormone that is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. It is a metabolic disorder that causes blood sugar to raise high. The common symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination, thirstiness, and extreme hunger. There are four types of diabetes mellitus. They are:

  • Type 1 diabetes (also known as juvenile diabetes)
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Prediabetes (pres stage of type 2 diabetes)
  • Gestational diabetes (occurs during pregnancy)

Diabetes insipidus is also a rare disorder in which the kidney is affected to produce a large amount of urine which is odorless and dilute. In this disorder, 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day is passed by a kidney due to which an individual can feel thirsty frequently. Diabetes mellitus is not related to insulin and thus there is a difference between the executions of two in the body although they have the same symptoms.

Both of these types include both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, in diabetes mellitus, the blood sugar levels are disturbed whereas, in diabetes Insipidus, kidneys are affected and thus lose balance over the fluids of the body with normal blood glucose levels.

There are four types of diabetes insipidus and they are:

  • Central
  • Nephrogenic
  • Gestational
  • Dipsogenic

Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus: Know How It Differs From Diabetes Insipidus

The exact cause of this disorder has no confirmation but since there are various research and studies made on all types of diabetes, some predictions exist. The cause of Type 1 diabetes is assumed to be that- the immune system in our body destructs the beta cells (responsible for producing insulin) in the pancreas.

In prediabetes- which leads generally to type 2 diabetes- the cells in the pancreas become resistant to the activity of Insulin and thus pancreas could not produce insulin. Here, sugar builds up in the bloodstream instead of the cells.

In gestational diabetes, the pancreas could not respond by producing enough insulin to overcome the resistance. Thus glucose gets into the bloodstream and very little amount of glucose retention occurs in the cell causing gestational diabetes.

Causes Of Diabetes Insipidus

  • Brain injury
  • Brain tumor
  • Tuberculosis
  • Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland during any surgery or therapy
  • Pituitary gland with no ADH release into the blood
  • Hypothalamus gland with no ADH formation

Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus

Depending upon the type of disorder, the treatment is executed with the following:

  • Physical exercise,
  • Nutrition counseling,
  • Quitting smoking,
  • Diabetic diet,
  • Medications (like blood thinners and statin) or insulin if required
  • Nutrition counseling

Treatment Of Diabetes Insipidus

Depending upon the type of disorder three sorts of general treatment is available for diabetes insipidus:

  • Hormone therapy
  • Low salt diet
  • Hydration by drinking a lot of water

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